100 and sixty years have passed since Charles Darwin complained that the Cambrian fossil report was his most significant issue, and “at present must remain inexplicable; and may be truly urged as a valid argument against the views here entertained.” Nothing has modified, besides that now, after two centuries of fossil accumulating, it is a worse drawback. How far more time to do Darwinians get?
As shown for years in these pages, Darwinians commit two fouls in their scientific papers concerning the Cambrian explosion. One is to utterly ignore the arguments by Darwin skeptics for clever design. The second is to hope towards hope that a suggestion here or there may “shed light” on the Cambrian radiation. Every time, they difficulty promissory notes that someday Darwin’s Doubt might not “remain inexplicable.” Their critics should say, “Time’s up. You guys lost.”
One other Unhelpful Fossil Deposit
From the Journal of the Geological Society of London, here is another example in the lengthy tradition of creating excuses. Kimmig et al. describe “The Spence Shale Lagerstätte: an important window into Cambrian biodiversity.” (Within the literature, Lagerstätte refers to fossils of outstanding preservation.) The Spence Shale deposit, indeed, incorporates exquisitely preserved fossils, proven in lovely colour and detail within the figures. They embrace many specimens of trilobites and other arthropods, radiodonts like Anomalocaris, mollusks like Wiwaxia, and far more. Situated in northern Utah and increasing into southern Idaho, the Spence Shale is older than the Burgess Shale. This could permit one to see some evolution, if there have been any.
The Spence Shale has been studied for a century, so what’s new on this paper? Here’s the Summary:
The Spence Shale Member of the Langston Formation is a Cambrian (Miaolingian: Wuliuan) Lagerstätte in northeastern Utah and southeastern Idaho. It’s older than the extra well-known Wheeler and Marjum Lagerstätten from western Utah, and the Burgess Shale from Canada. The Spence Shale shares several species with these younger deposits, yet it also incorporates a exceptional variety of unique species. Due to its relatively broad geographical distribution, and the number of palaeoenvironments and taphonomy, the fossil composition and probability of recovering weakly skeletonized (or soft-bodied) taxa varies throughout localities. The Spence Shale is extensively acknowledged not only for its tender bodied taxa, but in addition for its plentiful trilobites and hyoliths. Current discoveries from the Spence Shale embrace problematic taxa and supply insights concerning the nature of palaeoenvironmental and taphonomic variation between totally different localities. [Emphasis added.]
Not much new here. The paper fulfills the first requirement for a Darwinian response to intelligent design: ignore it utterly. How concerning the second requirement, that of issuing promissory notes? Yes, that’s apparent within the last paragraph. Word the longer term tense:
Finally, unravelling macroevolutionary patterns in taxa occurring in soft-bodied deposits such because the Spence Shale will in all probability show useful for evaluating numerous hypotheses concerning the nature and timing of the Cambrian radiation (for dialogue of someo f these hypotheses, see Lieberman & Cartwright 2011; Daley et al.2018). As well as, progress lately has been made in understanding the geographical distribution of varied fossils in the Spence Shale, however rather more info is required concerning the stratigraphic and sedimentological context of fossils within and across localities (Field 4). Only then will it’s attainable to work out the varied taphonomic pathways that allowed soft-bodied preservation on this key window of Cambrian life.
Will they ever unravel the macroevolutionary patterns? Will the Spence Shale “prove useful” for evaluating “various hypotheses” concerning the “nature and timing of the Cambrian explosion”? Will they ever have enough “much more information” to work out the pathways that “allowed” soft-bodied preservation on this “key window of Cambrian life”? It might turn into “possible” someday over the rainbow. But when the set of “various hypotheses” excludes design by fiat, don’t maintain your breath.
Discover that nothing is actually new right here. The authors discovered some unique species and problematic taxa, however not one of the fossils are transitional varieties. They supply no evidence of progress from microbes or Ediacarans to the complicated body plans of Cambrian animals. Principally, the same forms of animals match into the identical bins as these from different Cambrian deposits. One factor is noteworthy; most of the fossils are nicely preserved regardless of bioturbation and oxygen.
Intriguingly, the Spence Shale doesn’t report evidence of constant anoxia (Garson et al. 2012; Kloss et al. 2015; Hammersburg et al. 2018). In truth, within the Spence Shale, soft-bodied fossils are additionally found in affiliation with bioturbated sediments (Garson et al. 2012; Kimmig & Strotz 2017), and geochemical evaluation of some intervals signifies oxygenated bottom waters (Kloss et al. 2015).
They’re intrigued by this, because it was apparently sudden. Different intriguing points of the Spence Shale are plentiful echinoderms. “The diverse echinoderm fauna is unique relative to other Cambrian Lagerstätten of Laurentia,” they say, “as usually sponges are the second most dominant phylum.” This does not help Darwinism. Echinoderms are typically extra complicated than sponges. Having numerous kinds of them makes it worse.
Ad Infinitum, Ad Nauseum
Other current articles concerning the Cambrian fossil document continue in the same vein: you may name it the “ignore and hope” strategy. Ignore ID arguments and maintain ready for solutions from pure causes.
News from the University of Leeds (see Science Day by day) resurrects the oxygen concept. “Extreme fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen levels corresponded with evolutionary surges and extinctions in animal biodiversity during the Cambrian explosion,” this old-news announcement says. The authors ignore ID and hope towards hope that repeating the phrase “evolution” like a mantra will conjure up spirits to conjure up animal body plans out of lazy Ediacarans. The word evolution seems 16 occasions in the press release, the word oxygen 21 occasions. Their supporting jargon appears in Nature Geoscience, exploring “Possible links between extreme oxygen perturbations and the Cambrian radiation of animals.” Oxygen is the prima donna within the play, all the time displaying as much as supply hope:
Thus, the worldwide extent of well-oxygenated shallow-ocean habitats in the course of the early Palaeozoic, in addition to the maximum dissolved oxygen content material of surface waters, performed a very important position in regulating the emergence and radiation of early animal life.
In Nature Communications, Williams, Mills, and Lenton also pump up the oxygen concept. They describe “A tectonically-driven Ediacaran oxygenation event,” starting, “The oxygenation of the Earth system was a necessary condition for the rise of complex animal life.” That’s true, however irrelevant. Complicated life requires many vital circumstances, all of which are inadequate in themselves.
It has classically been argued that a minimum oxygen threshold exists for the evolution of animal life, but oxygen requirement clearly is determined by the kind of animal, including their measurement, mobility, nervous system (info processing) and ecological habits. Sponges (Porifera) — that are the basal animals — have low pO2 necessities ~0.005–zero.04 PAL. Hence their evolution was not limited by any of our predicted pO2 levels, in line with biomarker evidence that demosponges have been present by ~660–640 Ma within the Cryogenian.
It was nice of the early environment not to restrict the emergence of sponges. However the place did they arrive from? Certainly not from oxygen alone. The place does “information processing” come from? That’s someone else’s drawback, they indicate:
While disentangling the various elements influencing faunal evolution is beyond the realms of this research, we provide the first quantitative prediction of Ediacaran oxygenation that’s according to geochemical knowledge and with estimated pO2 necessities for the Cambrian explosion.
Need complicated body plans? Need info processing, mobility, and nervous methods? We’ll truck in the oxygen, they insinuate; now, go remedy the issue.
News from the College of Exeter, the place Josh Williams works, explains how blind nature may need trucked in the oxygen. “Plate tectonics may have driven ‘Cambrian Explosion’, study shows.”
A group of scientists have given a recent perception into what might have pushed the “Cambrian Explosion” — a interval of speedy enlargement of various forms of animal life that occurred over 500 million years ago.
While a variety of theories have been put forward to elucidate this landmark interval, probably the most credible is that it was fuelled by a vital rise in oxygen levels which allowed a large variety of animals to thrive.
The brand new research means that such a rise in oxygen levels was the results of extraordinary modifications in international plate tectonics.
His co-author Tim Lenton is aware of about the problem. “One of the great dilemmas originally recognised by Darwin is why complex life, in the form of fossil animals, appeared so abruptly in what is now known as the Cambrian explosion.” Rigorously wording his ending dodge, Lenton says, “It is remarkable to think that our oldest animal ancestors — and therefore all of us — may owe our existence, in part, to an unusual episode of plate tectonics over half a billion years ago.”
It’s exceptional. So right here is a remark. Evolutionary scientists have had 160 years to figure out this dilemma. Give the stage to individuals who invoke causes which are essential and adequate to elucidate the observations of practical, complicated, hierarchically organized animal body plans. ID provides such a trigger: intelligence.
Photograph credit: Charlie Wollborg, by way of Flickr (cropped).